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BRAHMS, Johannes  (1833-1897)

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Brahms, Johannes, great German composer; b. Hamburg, May
7,1833; d. Vienna, April 3,1897. His father, who played the double bass in the orch. of the Phil. Soc. in Hamburg, taught Brahms the rudiments of music; later he began to study piano with Otto F.W. Cossel, and made his 1st public appearance as a pianist with a chamber music group at the age of 10. Impressed with his progress, Cossel sent Brahms to his own former teacher, the noted pedagogue Eduard Marxsen, who accepted him as a scholarship student, without charging a fee. Soon Brahms was on his own, and had to eke out his meager subsistence by playing piano in taverns, restaurants, and other establishments (but not in brothels, as insinuated by some popular biographers). On Sept. 21,1848, at the age of 15, Brahms played a solo concert in Hamburg under an assumed name. In 1853 he met the Hungarian violinist Eduard Reményi, with whom he embarked on a successful concert 2 tour. While in Hannover, Brahms formed a friendship with
the famous violin virtuoso Joseph Joachim, who gave him an introduction to Liszt in Weimar. Of great significance was his meeting with Schumann in Düsseldorf. In his diary of the time, Schumann noted: “Johannes Brahms, a genius. He reiterated his appraisal of Brahms in his famous article “Neue Bahnen ~New Paths), which appeared in the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik on Oct. 28, 1853; in a characteristic display of meta- - phor, he described young Brahms as having come into life as Minerva sprang in full armor from the brow of Jupiter. Late in 1853, Breitkopf & Härtel publ. his 2 piano sonatas and a set of 6 songs. Brahms also publ., under the pseudonym of G.W. Marks, a collection of 6 pieces for piano. 4-hands, under the title Souvenir de Ia Russie (Brahms never visited Russia). Schumann’s death in 1856, after years of agonizing mental illness, deeply affected Brahms. He remained a devoted friend of Schumann’s family; his correspondence with Schumann’s widow Clara reveals a deep affection and spiritual intimacy, but the speculation about their friendship growing into a romance exists only in the fevered imaginations of psychologizing biographers. Objectively judged, the private life of Brahms was that of a middle-class bourgeois who worked systematically and diligently on his current tasks while maintaining a fairly active social life. He was always ready and willing to help young composers (his earnest efforts on behalf of Dvo~ák were notable). Brahms was entirely free of professional jealousy; his differences with Wagner were those of style. Wagner was an opera composer, whereas Brahms never wrote for the stage. True, some ardent admirers of Wagner (such as Hugo Wolf) found little of value in the music of Brahms, while admirers of Brahms (such as Hanslick) were sharp critics of Wagner, but Brahms held aloof from such partisan wranglings.
From 1857 to 1859 Brahms was employed in Detmold as court pianist, chamber musician, and choir director. In the meantime he began work on his 1st piano concerto. He played it on Jan. 22, 1859, in Hannover, with Joachim as conductor. Other important works of the period were the 2 serenades for orch. and the 1st string sextet. He expected to be named conductor of the Hamburg Phil. Soc., but the directoriat preferred to engage, in 1863, the singer Julius Stockhausen in - that capacity. Instead, Brahms accepted the post of conductor
of the Singakademie in Vienna, which he led from 1863 to 1864. In 1869 he decided to make Vienna his permanent home. - As early as 1857 he began work on his choral masterpiece, Em den tsches Requiem; he completed the score in 1868, and conducted its 1st performance in the Bremen Cathedral on April10, 1868, although the 1st 3 movements had been given by Herbeck and the Vienna Phil. on Dec. 1, 1867. In May 1868 he added another movement to the work (the 5th, “lhr habt nun Traurigkeit”) in memory of his mother, who died in 1865; the 1st performance of the final version was given in Leipzig on Feb. 18, 1869. The title of the German Requiem had no nationalistic connotations; it simply stated that the text was in German rather than Latin. His other important vocal scores include Rinaldo, a cantata; the Liebeslieder waltzes for Vocal Quartet and Piano, 4-hands; the Alto Rluipsody; the Schicksalshed; and many songs. In 1869 he publ. 2 vols. of Hungarian Dances for Piano Duet; these were extremely successful. Among his chamber music works, the Piano Quintet in F minor; the String Sextet No. 2, in G major; the Trio for French Horn, Violin, and Piano; the 2 String Quartets, op. 51; and the String Quartet op. 67 are exemplary works of their kind. In 1872 Brahms was named artistic director of the concerts of Vienna’s famed Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde; he held this post until 1875. During this time, he composed the Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn, op. 56a. The title was a misnomer; the theme occurs in a Feld-partita for Military Band by Haydn, but it was not Haydn’s own; it was orig. known as the St. Anthony Chorale, and in pedantic scholarly eds. of Brahms it is called St. Anthony Variations. Otto Dessoff conducted the 1st performance of the work with the Vienna Phil. on Nov. 2,1873. For many years friends and admirers of Brahms urged him to write a sym. He clearly had a symphonic mind; his piano concertos were symphonic in outline and thematic development. As early as 1855 he began work on a full-fledged sym.; in 1862 he nearly completed the 1St movement of what was to be his 1st Sym. The famous horn solo in the finale of the 1st Sym. was jotted down by Brahms on a picture postcard to Clara Schumann dated Sept. 12, 1868, from his summer place in the Tyrol; in it Brahms said that he heard the tune played by a shepherd on an Alpine horn; and he set it to a rhymed quatrain of salutation. Yet Brahms was still unsure about his symphonic capacity. (A frivolous suggestion was made by an irresponsible psychomusicologist that it was when Brahms grew his famous luxuriant beard that he finally determined to complete his symphonic essay; such pogonological speculations illustrate the degree to which musical criticism can contribute to its own ridiculosity.) The great C-minor Sym., his 1st, was completed in 1876 and 1st performed at Karlsruhe on Nov. 4, 1876, conducted by Dessoff. Hans von Bulow, the German master of the telling phrase, called it ‘The 10th,’ thus placing Brahms on a direct line from Beethdven. It was also Hans von Bulow who cracked a bon mot that became a part of music history, in referring to the 3 B’s of music, Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms. The original saying was not merely a vacuous alphabetical generalization; Bülow’s phrase was deeper; in answering a question as to what was his favorite key, he said it was E-fiat major, the key of Beethoven’s Eroica, because it had 3 B’s in its key signature (in German, B is specifically B-flat, but by extension may signify any flat)-l for Bach, I for Beethoven, and I for Brahms. The witty phrase took wing, but its sophisticated connotation was lost at the hands of professional popularizers.
Brahms composed his 2nd Sym. in 1877; it was performed for the 1st time by the Vienna Phil. on Dec. 30, 1877, under the direction of Hans Richter, receiving a fine acclaim. Brahms led a 2nd performance of the work with the Gewandhaus Orch. in Leipzig on Jan. 10, 1878. Also in 1878 Brahms wrote his Violin Concerto; the score was dedicated to Joachim, who gave its premiere with the Gewandhaus Orch. on Jan. 1, 1879. Brahms then composed his 2nd Piano Concerto, in B-flat major, and was soloist in its 1st performance in Budapest, on Nov. 9,1881. There followed the 3rd Sym., in F~ajor, 1st performed by the Vienna Phil., under the direction of Hans Richter, on Dec. 2, 1883. The 4th Sym., in E minor, followed in quick succession; it had its 1st performance in Meiningen on Oct. 25, 1885. The symphonic cycle was completed in less than a decade; it has been conjectured, without foundation, that the tonalities of the 4 syms. of Brahms-C, D, F, and E-correspond to the fugal subject of Mozart’s Jupiter Sym., and that some symbolic meaning was attached to it. All speculations aside, there is an inner symmetry uniting these works. The 4 syms. contain 4 movements each, with a slow movement and a scherzo-like Allegretto in the middle of the corpus. There are fewer departures from the formal scheme than in Beethoven, and there are no,extraneous episodes interfering with the grand general line. Brahms wrote music pure in design and eloquent in sonorous projection; he was a true classicist, a quality that endeared him to the critics who were repelled by Wagnerian streams of sound, and by the same token alienated those who sought something more than mere geometry of thematic configurations from a musical composition.
The chamber music of Brahms possesses similar symphonic qualities; when Schoenberg undertook to make an orch. arrangernent of the Piano Quartet of Brahms, all he had to do was to expand the sonorities and enhance instrumental tone colors already present in the original. The string quartets of Brahms are edifices of Gothic perfection; his 3 violin sonatas, his 2nd Piano Trio (the 1st was a student work and yet it had a fine quality of harmonious construction), all contribute to a permanent treasure of musical classicism. The piano writlug of Brahms is severe in its contrapuntal texture, but pianists for a hundred years included his rhapsodies and intermezzos in their repertoire; and Brahms was able to impart sheer delight in his Hungarian rhapsodies and waltzes; they represented the Viennese side of his character, as contrasted with the profound Germanic quality of his syms. The song cycles of Brahms continued the evolution of the art of the lieder, a natural continuation of the song cycles of Schubert and Schumann.
Brahms was sociable and made friends easily; he traveled to Italy, and liked to spend his summers in the solitude of the Austrian Alps. But he was reluctant to appear as a center of attention; he declined to receive the honorary degree of Mus.D. from Cambridge Univ. in 1876, giving as a reason his fear of seasickness in crossing the English Channel. He was pleased to receive the Gold Medal of the Phil. Soc. of London in 1877. In 1879 the Univ. of Breslau proffered him an honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy, citing him as “Artis musicae severioris in Germania nunc princeps.” As a gesture of appreciation and gratitude he wrote an Akademische Festouverture for Breslau, and since there was no Channel to cross on the way, he accepted the invitation to conduct its premiere in Breslau on Jan. 4, 1881; its rousing finale using the German student song “Gaudeamus igitur” pleased the academic assembly. In 1887 he was presented with the Prussian Order “Pour le Mérite.” In 1889 he received the freedom of his native city of Hamburg; also in 1889, Franz Joseph, the Emperor of Austria, made him a Commander of the Order of Leopold. With success and fame came a sense of self-sufficiency, which found its external expression in the corpulence of his appearance, familiar to all from photographs and drawings of Brahms conducting or playing the piano. Even during his Viennese period Brahms remained a sturdy Prussian; his ideal was to see Germany a dominant force in Europe philosophically and militarily. In his workroom he kept a bronze relief of Bismarck, the “Iron Chancellor,” crowned with laurel. He was extremely meticulous in his working habits (his MSS were clean and legible), but he avoided wearing formal dress, preferring a loosely fitting flannel shirt and a detachable white collar, but no cravat. He liked to dine in simple restaurants, and he drank a great deal of beer. He was indifferent to hostile criticism; still, it is amazing to read the outpouring of invective against Brahms by George Bernard Shaw and by American critics; the usual accusations were of dullness and turgidity. When Sym. Hall was opened in Boston in 1900 with the lighted signs “Exit in Case of Fire,” someone cracked that they should more appropriately announce ‘Exit in Case of Brahms.” Yet, at the hands of successive German conductors Brahms became a standard symphonist in N.Y., Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. From the perspective of a century, Brahms appears as the greatest master of counterpoint after Bach; one can learn polyphony from a studious analysis of the chamber music and piano works of Brahms; he excelled in variation forms; his
piano variations on a theme of Paganini are exemplars of conpuntal learning, and they are also among the most diffipiano works of the 19th century. Posterity gave him a full measure of recognition; Hamburg celebrated his sesquicentennial in 1983 with great pomp. Brahms had lived a good life, but died a bad death, stricken with cancer of the liver.
Works: ORCH.: 4 syms.: No. 1, in C minor, op. 68 (1855- 76; Karlsruhe, Nov. 4,1876, Dessoff conducting); No. 2, in D major, op. 73(1877; Vienna, Dec. 30, 1877, Richter conducting); No. 3, in F major, op. 90 (1883; Vienna, Dec. 2,1883, Richter conducting); No. 4, in E minor, op. 98 (1884-85; Meiningen, Oct. 17, 1885, Brahms conducting [private perf.]; public perf., Oct. 25, 1885, Bulow conducting).
OTHER WORKS FOR ORCH.: Piano Concerto No. 1, in D minor, op. 15 (1854-58; Hannover, Jan. 22, 1859; Brahms, soloist; Joachim conducting); Serenade No. 1, in D major, op. 11(1st version, for small orch., 1857-58; Hamburg, March 28, 1859, Joachim conducting; 2nd version, for larger orch., 1859; Hannover, March 3, 1860, Joachim conducting); Serenade No. 2, in A major, op. 16 (1858-59; Hamburg, Feb. 10, 1860, composer conducting; rev. 1875); Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn, op. 56a (the theme, from the St. Anthony Chorale, is not by Haydn; 1873; Vienna, Nov. 2, 1873, Dessoff conducting); Violin Concerto in D major, op. 77(1878; Leipzig, Jan. 1, 1879; Joachim, soloist; composer conducting); Piano Concerto No. 2, in B-fiat major, op. 83 (1878-81; Budapest, Nov. 9,1881; Brahms, soloist; Erkel conducting); Akademische Festouvertüre, op. 80 (1880; Breslau, Jan. 4, 1881, composer conducting); Tragische Ouverture, op. 81(1880; Vienna, Dec. 26, 1880, Richter conducting; rev. 1881); Concerto in A minor for Violin and Cello, op. 102, the Double Concerto (1887; Cologne, Oct. 18, 1887; Joachim, violinist; Hausmann, cellist; Wullner conducting); also 3 Hungarian Dances arranged for Orch. (1873): No. 1, in G minor; No. 3, in F major; No. 10, in F major.
CHAMBER:    Piano Trio No. 1, in B major, op. 8 (1853-54; N.Y., Nov. 27, 1855; rev. 1889); Sextet No. 1, in B-flat major, for2 Violins, 2 Violas, and 2 Cellos, op. 18(1858-60; Hannover, Oct. 20, 1860); Piano Quartet No. 1, in G minor, op. 25(1861; Hamburg, Nov. 16, 1861); Piano Quartet No. 2, in A major, op. 26 (1861-62; Vienna, Nov. 29, 1862); Piano Quintet in F minor, op. 34 (1861-64; Paris, March 24, l86&); Sextet No. 2, in G major, for 2 Violins, 2 Violas, and 2 Cellos, op. 36 (1864-65; Vienna, Feb. 3, 1867); Cello Sonata No. 1, in E minor, op. 38 (1862-65); Trio in E-flat major for Violin, Horn or Viola, and Piano, op. 40 (1865; Karlsruhe, Dec. 7,1865); String Quartet No. 1, in C minor, op. 51 (1865?-73?; Vienna, Dec. 1,1873); String Quartet No. 2, in A minor, op. 51(1865?- 73?; Vienna, Oct. 18, 1873); Piano Quartet No. 3, in C minor, op. 60(1855-75; Ziegelhausen, Nov. 18, 1875); String Quartet No. 3, in B-flat major, op. 67 (1876; Berlin, Oct. 1876); Violin Sonata No. 1, in G major, op. 78 (1878-79; Vienna, Nov. 29, 1879); Piano Trio No.2, in C major, op.87 (1880-82; Frankfurt, Dec. 28, 1882); Quintet No. 1, in F major, for 2 Violins, 2 Violas, and Cello, op. 88 (1882; Frankfurt, Dec. 28, 1882); Cello Sonata No. 2, in F major, op. 99 (1886; Vienna, Nov. 24, 1886); Violin Sonata No. 2, in A major, op. 100 (1886; Vienna, Dec. 2, 1886); Piano Trio No. 3, in C minor, op. 101 (1886; Budapest, Dec. 20, 1886); Violin Sonata No. 3, in D minor, op. 108 (1886-88; Budapest, Dec. 22, 1888); Quintet No. 2, in G major, for 2 Violins, 2 Violas, and Cello, op. 111 (1890; Vienna, Nov. 11, 1890); Trio in A minor for Clarinet or Viola, Cello, and Piano, op. 114 (1891; Berlin, Dec. 1,1891); Quintet in B minor for Clarinet and String Quartet, op. 115 (1891; Berlin, Dec. 1, 1891); 2 sonatas: No. 1, in F minor, and No. 2, in E-flat major, for Clarinet or Viola, and Piano, op. 120 (1894; Vienna, Jan. 7, 1895); also a Scherzo in C minor for Violin and Piano, a movement from the Sonata in A minor by Brahms, Schumann, and A. Dietnch. In 1924 a copy from the original score of a Trio in A major, presumably composed by Brahms when he was about 20 years old (see letter to R. Schumann, 1853), was discovered in Bonn; it was publ. in 1938.
SOLO PI~o: Scherzo in E-flat minor, op. 4 (1851; Vienna, March 17, 1867); Sonata No. 1, in C major, op. 1 (1852-53; Leipzig, Dec. 17, 1853); Sonata No. 2, in F-sharp minor, op. 2 (1852; Vienna, Feb. 2, 1882); Sonata No. 3, in F minor, op. 5 (1853; Vienna, Jan. 6,1863); Variations on a Theme by Schumann in F-sharp minor, op. 9 (1854; Berlin, Dec. 1879); 4 Ballades, op. 10: D minor, D major, B minor, and B major (1854); Gavotte in A minor (1854); Gavotte in A major (1855); 2 Gigues: A minor and B minor (1855); 2 Sarabandes: A minor and B minor (1855; Vienna, Jan. 20, 1856); Variations [13] on a Hungarian Song in D major, op. 21(1853; London, March 25, 1874); Variations [11] on an Original Theme in D major, op. 21(1857; Copenhagen, March 1868); Variations [25] and Fugue on a Theme by Handel in B-flat major, op. 24 (1861; Hamburg, Dec. 7,1861); Variations [281 on a Theme by Paganini in A minor, op. 35 (1862-63; Zurich, Nov. 25, 1865); 16 Waltzes, op. 39 (1865); 8 Piano Pieces, op. 76 (1871-78; Leipzig, Jan. 4, 1880); 2 Rhapsodies: B minor and G minor, op. 79(1879; Krefeld, Jan.20, 1880); Fantasien [7], op. 116(1892);
3 Intermezzos: E-fIat major, B-flat minor, and C-sharp minor, op. 117 (1892); Piano Pieces [6], op. 118 (1892; London, Jan. 1894); Piano Pieces [4], op. 119 (1892; London, Jan. 1894); also 5 Studien for Piano (I, Study after Frhdéric Chopin, in F minor, an arrangement of Chopin’s Etude No. 2, op. 25; II, Rondo after Carl Maria von Weber, in C major, an arrangement of the finale of Webers Moto perpetuo, op. 24; III and IV, Presto after J.S. Bach, in G minor (2 arrangements of the finale of BWV 1001); V, Chaconne by IS. Bach, in D minor (an atfangement of the finale of BWV 1016); Theme and Variations in D minor (an arrangement of the slow movement of the Sextet No. 1; 1860; Frankfurt, Oct. 31, 1865); Gavotte in A major (an arrangement from Cluck’s Paris ed Elena; Vienna, Jan. 20, 1856; publ. 1871); 10 Hungarian Dances (an arrangement of nos. 1-10 from the original version for Piano, 4-hands; publ. 1872); 51 Exercises (publ. 1893); cadenzas to concertos by Bach (Harpsichord Concerto No. 1, in D minor, BWV 1052), Mozart (Piano Concertos Nos. 17, in C major, K. 453; 20, in D minor, K. 466; and 24, in C minor, K. 491), and Beethoven (Piano Concerto No. 4, in C major, op. 58).
PIANO, 4-I~r.iDs: Variations on a Theme by Schumann in E-flat major, op. 23(1861; Vienna, Jan. 12, 1864); 16 Waltzes, op. 39(1865; Vienna, March 17,1867); Liebeslieder, 18 waltzes, op. 52a (1874; an arrangement from the original version for 4 Voices and Piano, 4-hands); Neue Liebeslieder, 15 waltzes, op. 65a (1877; an arrangement from the original version for 4 Voices and Piano, 4-hands); Hungarian Dances (21 dances in 4 books; 1852-69).
2Pt~~’~os: Sonata in F minor, op. 34b (1864; Vienna, April
17, 1874); Variations on a Theme by Haydn, op. 56b (1873; Vienna, March 17, 1882); also arrangements of Ioachim’s Demetrius Overture and Overture to Henry IV.
ORGAN:   Fugue in A-flat minor (1856); 0 Tranrigkeit, 0 Herzeleid, chorale prelude and fugue in A minor (1856; Vienna, Dec. 2,1882); 2 preludes and fugues: A minor and G minor (1856-57); 11 Choralvorspiele, op. 122 (1896).
VOCAL:   CHORAL: Mass: Kyrie for 4-part Mixed Chorus and
Keyboard, and Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei for Mixed
Chorus a cappella or with accompaniment (1856); Geistliches
Lied for 4-part Chorus, and Organ or Piano, op. 30 (1856);
Em deutsches Requiem for Soprano, Baritone, Chorus, and
Orch., op. 45 (1857-68; 1st 3 movements, under Herbeck,
Vienna, Dec. 1, 1867; movements 1-4 and 6, under Brahms,
Bremen, April 10, 1868; 1st complete perf., under Reinecke,
Leipzig, Feb. 18, 1869); Ave Maria for Women’s Voices, and
Orch. or Organ, op. 12 (1858); Begrdbnisgesang for Choir and
Wind Instruments, op. 13 (1858; Hamburg, Dec. 2, 1859);
Marienlieder for Mixed Chorus, op. 22 (Hamburg, Sept. 19,
1859); 4 Songs for Women’s Voices, 2 Horns, and Harp, op.
17 (1859-60); Der 13. Psalm for Women’s Voices, and Organ
or Piano, with Strings ad libitum, op. 27 (1859; Hamburg,
Sept. 19, 1864); 2 Motets for 5-part Chorus a cappella, op.
29(1860; Vienna, April 17, 1864); 3 Sacred Choruses for Women’s Voices a cappella, op. 37 (1859-63); 5 Soldatenlieder for
4-part Male Chorus a cappella, op. 41(1861-62); 3 Songs for 6-part Mixed Chorus, with Piano ad libitum, op. 42 (1859- 61); 12 Songs and Romances for Women’s Voices, with Piano ad libitum, op. 44 (1859-63); Rinaldo, cantata for Tenor, Male Chorus, and Orch., op. 50, after Goethe (1863-68; Vienna, Feb. 28, 1869); Rhapsodie for Contralto, Male Chorus, and Orch., op. 53, after Goethe’s Harzreise im Winter (1869; Jena, March 3,1870); Schicksalslied for Chorus and Orch., op. 54 (1868-71; Karlsruhe, Oct. 18, 1871); Triumphlied for 8-part Chorus, Baritone, and Orch., op. 55(1870-71; Karlsruhe, June 5, 1872); 7 Songs for 4- and 6-part a cappella Chorus, op. 62 (1874); Nänie for Chorus and Orch., op. 82, after Schiller (1880-81; Zurich, Dec. 6,1881); 2 Motets for 4- and 6-part a cappella Chorus, op. 74 (1877; 2nd motet probably composed between 1860 and 1865; Vienna, Dec. 8,1878); Gesang der Parzen for 6-part Chorus and Orch., op. 89, after Goethe’s Iphigenie auf Tauris (1882; Basel, Dec. 10, 1882); 6 Songs and Romances for 4-part a cappella Chorus, op. 93a (1883- 84; Krefeld, Jan. 27, 1885); Tafellied for 6-part Chorus and Piano, op. 93b (1884; Krefeld, Jan. 28, 1885); 5 Songs for 4- and 6-part a cappella Chorus, op. 104 (1888; Vienna, April 3, 1889); Fest- und Gedenkspruche for a Double a cappella Chorus, op. 109(1886-88; Hamburg, Sept. 14,1889); 3 Motets for 4- and 8-part a cappella Chorus, op. 110 (1889; Cologne, March 13, 1890); also 13 Canons for Women’s Voices, op. 113 (1860-67); Den tsche Volkslieder (26 songs arranged for
4-part Chorus; 1854-73; publ. in 2 books, 1864 and 1926- 27). QUARTETS: For Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass, and Piano: 3 Quartets, op 31(1859-63); Lieheslieder, 18 waltzes, with Piano, 4-hands, op. 52 (1868-69; Vienna, Jan. 5, 1870); 3 Quartets, op. 64 (1862-74); Neue LiebesUeder, 15 waltzes, with Piano, 4-hands, op. 65 (1874; Mannheim, May 8, 1875); 4 Quartets, op. 92 (1877-84); Zigeunerlieder, op. 103 (1887); 6 Quartets, op. 112 (1888-91); also Liebeslieder, Nos. 1, 2, 4- 6, 8, 9, and 11 from op. 52 and No. 5 from op. 65, with Orch. (1870); Kleine Hochzeitskantate (1874). DUETS: With Piano Accompaniment: 3 Duets for Soprano and Alto, op. 20 (1858- 60; Vienna, Jan. 29, 1878); 4 Duets for Alto and Baritone, op. 28 (1860-62; Vienna, Dec. 18, 1862); 4 Duets for Soprano and Alto, op. 61(1874); 5 Duets for Soprano and Alto, op. 66 (1875; Vienna, Jan. 29, 1878); 4 Ballads and Romances, op. 75 (1877-78). SONGS: With Piano Accompaniment: 6 Songs, op. 7 (1851-52); 6 Songs, op. 3, for Tenor or coprano (1852- 53); 6 Songs, op. 6, for Soprano or Tenor (1852-53); 8 Songs and Romances, op. 14 (1858); 5 Poems, op. 19 (1858); Romances [15] from L. Tieck’s “Magelone” (1861-68); Songs [9], op. 32 (1864); 7 Songs, op. 48 (1855-68); 4 Songs, op. 43 (1857-64); 5 Songs, op. 47 (1860-68); 4 Songs, op. 46 (1864-68); 5 Songs, op. 49 (1868); Songs [8], op. 57 (1871); Songs [8], op. 58 (1871); Songs [8], op. 59 (1871-73); Songs [9], op. 63 (1874); 4 Songs, op. 70 (1875-77); 9 Songs, op. 69 (1877); 5 Songs, op. 72 (1876-77); 5 Songs, op. 71(1877);
6 Songs, op. 86 (1877-79); 6 Songs, op. 85 (1877-82); Romances and Songs [15] for I or 2 Female Voices, op. 84 (1881); 2 Songs for Alto, Viola, and Piano, op. 91(1st song may have been begun as early as 1864, the 2nd in 1878; publ. 1884); 5 Songs, op. 94 (1884); 7 Songs, op. 95 (1884); 4 Songs, op.
96(1884); 6 Songs, op 97(1884-85); 5 Songs, op 105 (1886);
5 Songs, op. 106 (1886); 5 Songs, op. 107 (1886); Vier ernste Gesunge for Baritone, op. 121 (1896); also Mondnacht (1854); Regenlied (1872); 5 Songs of Ophelia for Soprano, with Piano ad libitum (1873); 14 Volkskinderlieder, arrangements for Voice and Piano (1858); 28 Deutsche Volkslieder, arrangements for Voice and Piano (1858; publ. 1926); arrangement of Schubert’s Memnon for Voice and Orch. (1862); arrangement of Schubert’s An Schwager Kronos for Voice and Orch. (1862); arrangement of Schubert’s Geheimes for Voice, Horn, and Strings; 8 Gypsy Songs, an arrangement of op. 103, nos. 1-7 and 11, for Voice and Piano (1887); 49 Deutsche Volkslieder, arrangements for Voice and Piano (1894).