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GLAZUNOV, Alexander  (1865-1936)

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Glazunov, Alexander (Konstantinovich), eminent Russi composer; b. St. Petersburg, Aug. 10, 1865; d. Neuilly-s Seine, March 21,1936. Of a well-to-do family (his father v a book publisher), he studied at a technical high school St. Petersburg, and also took lessons in music with N. Elenk sky. As a boy of 15, he was introduced to Rimsky-Korsak who gave him weekly lessons in harmony, counterpoint, a orchestration. He made rapid progress, and at the age of completed his 1st Sym., which was conducted by Balakt on March 29, 1882, in St. Petersburg. So mature was
score that Glazunov was hailed by Stasov, Cui, and others a rightful heir to the masters of the Russian national sch The music publisher Belaiev arranged for publication of. works, and took him to Weimar, where he met Liszt. Fri that time Glazunov composed assiduously in all genres exci opera. He was invited to conduct his syms. in Paris (181 and London (1896—97). Returning to St. Petersburg, he ci ducted concerts of Russian music. In 1899 he was enga~ as an instructor in composition and orchestration at the Petersburg Cons. He resigned temporarily during the revo tionary turmoil of 1905 in protest against the dismissal Rimsky-Korsakov by the government authorities, but returr to the staff after full autonomy was granted to the Cons. the administration. In 1905 Glazunov was elected director a retained this post until 1928, when he went to Paris. In If he made several appearances as conductor in the U.S. was the recipient of honorary degrees of Mus.D. from Ca bridge and Oxford Univs. (1907). Although he wrote no te book on composition, his pedagogical methods left a last impression on Russian musicians through his many stude who preserved his traditions. His music is often regarded academic, yet there is a flow of rhapsodic eloquence that plai Glazunov in the Romantic school. He was for a time gre~ swayed by Wagnerian harmonies, but resisted this influei successfully; Lisztian characteristics are more pronounced his works. Glazunov was one of the greatest masters of count point among Russian composers, but he avoided extreme pc phonic complexity. The national spirit of his music is unmist able; in many of his descriptive works, the programmatic des:
is explicitly Russian (Stenka Razin, The Kremlin, etc.). I most popular score is the ballet Raymonda. The major port of his music was written before 1906, when he comple his 8th Sym.; after that he wrote mostly for special occasio He also completed and orchestrated the overture to Borodi Prince Igor from memory, having heard Borodin play it the piano.
Womcs (all 1st perf. in St. Petersburg [Petrograd] unl otherwise given): STAGE: Introduction and Dance of Salo for Saknne by 0. Wilde (1912); incidental music to The K of the Jews by K. Romanov (Jan. 9,1914). BALLETS: Raymor (1896; Jan. 19, 1898); The Ruses of Love (1898; 1900); ‘i Seasons (1899; Feb. 20, 1900). ORCH.: 9 syms.: No. 1, ir major (1881; March 29, 1882; rev. 1885, 1929); No. 2, in sharp minor (1886; Paris, June 29, 1889); No. 3, in D m~ (Dec. 20, 1890); No. 4, in E-flat major (1893; Feb. 3, 18f No. 5, in B-flat major (1895; London, Jan. 28, 1897); C minor (1896; Feb. 21, 1897); No. 7, in F major (190~ Jan. 3, 1903); No. 8, in E-flat major (Dec. 22, 1906); No.
in D major (1910; completed by G. Yudin, 1948). SOLO WI1~ ORCH.: Melody and Spanish Serenade for Cello (1888); Sor~ of a Minstrel for Cello (1900; also for Cello and Piano); Viol Concerto (1904; March 4, 1905; L. Auer, soloist); Piano Co~ certo No. 1 (1910); Piano Concerto No. 2 (Nov. Il, 1917~ Mazurka -0 berek for Violin (1917; orchestration by I. Yampols[ of work for Violin and Piano); Concerto-Ballata for Cello (193 Paris, Oct. 14, 1933; Maurice Eisenberg, soloist); Saxophor.. Concerto (1931; Nykoping, Nov. 25, 1934; Sigurd Raschesoloist). OTHER: 2 Overtures on Greek Themes (1881, 1883~ 2 Serenades (1883, 1884); Lyric Poem (1884); Stenka Razz:
symphonic poem (1885); To the Memory of a Hero (1885:
Characteristic Suite (1885); Idyll and Oriental Reverie (1886’- The Forest, symphonic poem (1887); Mazurka (1888); Slavon Festival (1888; from String Quartet No. 3); Wedding Man> (1889); The Sea, symphonic fantasy (1889); Oriental Rhapsoa~ (1890); The Kremlin, musical picture (1891); Spring, music:
picture (1891); t2~hopiniana, suite on themes by Chopin (1893~ Carnaval, overture (1893); 2 Concert Waltzes (1894); 2 Solem~ Processionals (1894,1910); Ballet Suite (1894); From Darkn& to Light, fantasy (1894); Fantasy (1895); Suite (1898) an~ Characteristic Dance (1900) from Raymonda; Romantic Inte.~ mezzo (1900); Festival Overture (1900); March on a Russia. Theme (1901); Ballade (1902); From the Middle Ages, suiU. (1902; Jan. 3, 1903); Ballet Scene (1904); Russian Fantas~ for Balalaika Orch. (March 11, 1906); 2 Preludes: No. 1,1:
Memory of V. Stasov (1906), arid No. 2, In Memory of Rimskl:
Korsakov (1908); The Song of Destiny, overture (1908); In Men’ory of N. Gogol (1909); Finnish Fantasy (1909; March 2>- 1910); Finnish Sketches (1912); Karelian Legend, musical pkture (1914); Paraphrase on National Anthems of the Afli( (1915); Variations for Strings (1918); Epic Poem (1934). vc c~: Triumphal March for Chorus and Orch. (for the Chicag~ Columbian Exposition; 1893); Coronation Cantata (1894); Caa~ tate in Memory of Pushkin~s 100th Birthday (1899); Hymn 1’- Pushkin for Female Chorus and Piano (1899); Love for Charm (1907); Prelude-Cantata for the 50th Anniversary of the Sr Petersburg Cons. (1912); 21 songs. CHAMBER: 7 string quartets. No. 1, in D major (1882); No. 2, in F major (1884); No. 3~’ in G major (Quatuor Slave; 1888); No. 4, in A minor (1894> No. 5, in D minor (1898); No. 6, in B-flat major (1921); Nt:
7, in C major (1930); 5 Novelettes for String Quartet (1886):
Suite for String Quartet (1891); String Quintet (1895); Ele~m) for String Quartet (1928); Elegy to the Memory of F. Liszt fo~ Cello and Piano (1886); Reverie for Horn and Piano (1890)- Meditation for Violin and Piano (1891); In modo religioso foi~ Brass Quartet (1892); Elegy for Viola and Piano (1893); Ma7 zurka-Oberek for Violin and Piano (1917); Saxophone Quarter (1932). pi.&r,io: 2 sonatas (1901, 1901); Suite on the Thera~ “Sacha” (1883); Barcarolle and Novelette ,(1889); Prelude and”- 2 Mazurkas (1889); Nocturne (1889); 3 Etudes (1890); LitLk~ Waltz (1892); Grand Concert Waltz (1893); 3 Miniatztrer (1893); Salon Waltz (1893); 3 Pieces (1894); 2 Impromptss (1895); Prelude and Fugue (1899); Theme and Variations’(1900); 4 Preludes and Fugues (1918-23); Idylle (1926); Prelulv and Fugue (1926); Suite for 2 Pianos (1920).